CD Markers

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 5 January 2016, last major update September 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2016,, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD10[title]

Cite this page: CD10. website. Accessed May 27th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Cell membrane metallopeptidase widely distributed in hematopoietic cells and their neoplasms
  • Important in diagnosis of preB-ALL (OMIM #120520)
  • Useful in diagnosis of other entities (see below), but must be used with caution, as staining is nonspecific
  • Also called Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA), neutral endopeptidase 24.11, neprilysin, enkephalinase
  • 90-110 kDa cell membrane metallopeptidase at 3q21-27 which inactivates bioactive peptides, including bombesin
  • In epithelial cells, CD10 loss from methylation leads to increased cell migration, cell growth and cell survival, contributing to neoplastic development and progression (J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010;32:2)
Uses by pathologists
  • Apical surface staining only: well differentiated carcinoma of colon, pancreas, prostate (Am J Clin Pathol 2000;113:374)
  • Diffuse cytoplasmic or membranous / Golgi staining pattern: adenocarcinoma (poorly differentiated), endometrial stromal sarcoma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL):
  • One of first markers to identify leukemic cells in children (hence its name)
  • Found on ALL cells which derive from pre-B lymphocytes

Ectopic prostate:
Endometrial stromal tumors:
Gynecologic tumors:
  • Mesonephric remnants and tumors are CD10+
  • CD10 differentiates metastatic renal cell carcinoma (CD10+, Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:178) from primary clear cell carcinoma (CD10-)

Hepatocellular carcinoma vs. non-hepatocellular carcinoma:
Lymphoma: angioimmunoblastic T cell (AITL):
Lymphoma: Burkitt:
Lymphoma: diffuse large B cell:
Lymphoma: follicular:
Microvillous inclusion disease:
  • Confirm diagnosis of solid and pseudopapillary tumor (CD10+, Am J Surg Pathol 2000;24:1361)
  • Differentiates mucinous cystic neoplasms (CD10+ / CK20+) from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of branch duct type (CD10- / CK20-, Pancreas 2009;38:558)

Skin tumors:
  • Staining patterns may differentiate basal cell carcinoma-epithelial staining, trichoblastoma-peritumoral stromal staining (Int J Dermatol 2009;48:713), squamous cell carcinoma-strong stromal staining (Iran J Med Sci 2013;38:100)
  • Differentiates atypical fibroxanthoma (diffuse membranocytoplasmic staining) from spindle cell melanoma and sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (CD10-, J Cutan Pathol 2010;37:744)

Vascular tumors:
Microscopic (histologic) images

Quality control

Bladder - images hosted on other servers:

Noninvasive and invasive urothelial carcinoma

Bladder urothelial carcinoma

Breast - images hosted on other servers:

Myoepithelium (fig B, F)

Normal and DCIS


Stromal staining in invasive ductal carcinoma

Malignant phyllodes tumor

Breast - images hosted on

Adenosis (fig B)


Invasive ductal carcinoma

CNS - images hosted on

Hemangioblastoma (CD10-) vs. metastatic renal cell carcinoma (CD10+)

Kidney - image hosted on other servers:

Kidney hemangioblastoma (fig D)

Leukemia / lymphoma - images hosted on other servers:

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma


Leukemia / lymphoma - images hosted on

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

Reactive T cells may be CD10+

Liver: hepatocellular carcinoma - images hosted on

Canalicular pattern in hepatocellular carcinoma (figure B)

Lung - image hosted on other servers:


Lymph node - images hosted on other servers:

Metastatic prostate carcinoma

Metastatic seminoma

Pleura - images hosted on other servers:

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

Skin - images hosted on other servers:

Basal cell carcinoma (fig B)

Basal cell carcinoma (fig B)

Squamous cell carcinoma (fig B)



Skin - image hosted on


Small intestine - image hosted on other servers:

Microvillous inclusion disease

Small intestine - images hosted on

Normal enteric brush border

Enterocolic anastomosis

Crohn ileitis

Chronic, treatment-
refractory pouchitis

Backwash ileitis

Uterus: benign - images hosted on other servers:


CD10- stromal cells

Uterus: benign - images hosted on

Leiomyoma, cellular

Uterus: endometrial stromal sarcoma - images hosted on other servers:

Extrauterine (fig 4, inset ER)

Myxoid-fibrous (fig 4)

Uterus: endometrial stromal sarcoma - images hosted on

Various images

Uterus: endometrial adenocarcinoma - images hosted on


With adenomyosis

Malignant mixed mullerian tumor

Positive staining - normal
    Hematopoietic cells:
    • PreB cells, preT cells; some T cells, follicular center (germinal center) cells, granulocytes

    Other cells:
    • Adrenal cortex, brain, choroid plexus
    • Endometrial stroma, endothelial cells (some, Hypertension 1995;26:230), fibroblasts
    • GU (male) epithelium, hepatocytes, kidney microvilli
    • Liver, mesonephric remnants, myoepithelial cells (breast, Mod Pathol 2002;15:397, J Clin Pathol 2004;57:625)
    • Ovary, placenta (cytotrophoblast, intermediate trophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast), prostate basal and secretory cells
    • Small intestine (linear brush border staining, variable loss with active enteritis, Mod Pathol 2011;24:1627), Wolffian (but not mullerian) type epithelium
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
    Leukemia / lymphomas:
    • AML, Burkitt-like, CLL, EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders
    • Lymphoplasmacytic, mantle cell, marginal zone, pyothorax associated

    • Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (stromal cells), clear cell carcinoma of female genital tract, CNS hemangioblastoma
    • Colon (normal, diseased), erythroid and myeloid precursors, prostatic high grade PIN and basal cell hyperplasia (Hum Pathol 2003;34:450), prostate adenocarcinoma (all Gleason patterns 2 and 3, some 4 and 5)
Flow cytometry Images

Images hosted on other servers:

CD10+ vs. CD10- diffuse large B cell lymphoma