Placental gross / microscopic abnormalities, nonneoplastic
Low weight / small for gestational age

Author: Mandolin Ziadie, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 13 October 2017, last major update October 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Low weight small for gestational age [title] placenta

Cite this page: Ziadie, M. Low weight / small for gestational age. website. Accessed November 15th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Placental weight that falls below the 10th percentile for gestational age
  • Due to a variety of causes, including:
    • Fetal factors: prematurity, fetal malformations or trisomy, small for date fetus, neonatal high hemoglobin or lower than expected body size in later childhood for fetus
    • Maternal factors: low pregnancy weight gain, low maternal pregravid body weight, high maternal hemoglobin during pregnancy, gestational hypertension, paid employment during pregnancy, low parity, maternal diabetes, CMV, HSV or other chronic infections; other causes of reduced uteroplacental blood flow
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Evidence of placental hypoxia including terminal villous hypoplasia, chorangiosis or Tenney-Parker change