Placenta
Gross/Macroscopic Variations and Conditions
Variations in Size and Shape
Low weight / small for gestational age


Topic Completed: 1 October 2011

Minor changes: 28 October 2020

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PubMed Search: Low weight small for gestational age [title] placenta

Mandolin S. Ziadie, M.D.
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Cite this page: Ziadie MS. Low weight / small for gestational age. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/placentalowweight.html. Accessed January 22nd, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Placental weight that falls below the 10th percentile for gestational age
Etiology
  • Due to a variety of causes, including:
    • Fetal factors: prematurity, fetal malformations or trisomy, small for date fetus, neonatal high hemoglobin or lower than expected body size in later childhood for fetus
    • Maternal factors: low pregnancy weight gain, low maternal pregravid body weight, high maternal hemoglobin during pregnancy, gestational hypertension, paid employment during pregnancy, low parity, maternal diabetes, CMV, HSV or other chronic infections; other causes of reduced uteroplacental blood flow
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Evidence of placental hypoxia including terminal villous hypoplasia, chorangiosis or Tenney-Parker change
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