Skin - Melanocytic tumor
Other melanocytic lesions
Hyperpigmentation

Author: Christopher Hale, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 24 February 2017, last major update April 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: hyperpigmentation melanocytic

Cite this page: Hyperpigmentation. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/skintumormelanocytichyperpigmentation.html. Accessed April 23rd, 2017.
Definition / General
  • Common, usually harmless condition, in which patches of skin become darker than normal surrounding skin (Wikipedia)
  • Due to melanocyte stimulation from drugs (Merck), heat, hormones, inflammation (eMedicine), malignancy, metabolic disease, scars, sunlight, various dermatoses or familial progressive hyperpigmentation (Eur J Dermatol 2006;16:246)
  • Patches near axilla may be postinflammatory due to hair plucking (Int J Cosmet Sci 2006;28:247)
  • Hyperpigmentation can be evaluated with Taylor hyperpigmentation scale (Cutis 2005;76:270)
  • See also solar lentigo: age / liver spots due to sun damage on hands or face
Clinical Features
  • Skin with darker pigmentation than surrounding healthy skin, due to increased melanin
Case Reports
Treatment
  • None
  • Bleaching products with hydroquinone, retinol and antioxidants (Cutis 2008;81:365)
  • Laser therapy (Plast Reconstr Surg 2008;121:282)
  • Note: hydroquinone slows production of melanin, so darker areas gradually fade to match surrounding skin; tretinoin and cortisone take 3 - 6 months to produce improvement
Clinical Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Drug related:

Amiodarone

Bleomycin

Diltiazem


Imatinib

Imipramine


Other:

Familial Progressive Hyperpigmentation

Pre and post treatment for Vitamin B12 deficiency

42 year old African American
woman with lesions
on left side of face
as a result of acne excoriée

Micro Description
  • Increased pigmentation of basal keratinocytes, increased transfer of melanin into adjacent keratinocytes
  • Variable melanophages, deposits in dermal cells and apoptotic cells
  • No atypia
Micro Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Amiodarone

Diltiazem


Imatinib

Imipramine

Familial Progressive Hyperpigmentation

Electron Microscopy Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Photoexposed pigmented skin