Bladder, ureter & renal pelvis

Congenital anomalies

Arteriovenous malformation

Topic Completed: 1 June 2011

Minor changes: 20 October 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Bladder arteriovenous malformation

Alcides Chaux, M.D.
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Cite this page: Chaux A. Arteriovenous malformation. website. Accessed November 27th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • By definition, direct communication is present between arterioles and venules
  • More common in CNS, intestine, lung, extremities
  • Very rare in urinary bladder
  • Can be congenital or acquired (post-traumatic)
Clinical features
  • The most common symptom is hematuria (gross or micro, persistent or intermittent, may be massive)
  • Other symptoms include dysuria, difficulty in voiding and urinary retention
  • Some cases are asymptomatic
Case reports
  • Excision is adequate therapy
Gross description
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Admixture of malformed vessels such as capillaries, arteries and venules
  • Abrupt changes in thickness of medial and elastic layers of vessels, abnormal vascular dilation
  • Often advanced small vessel disease, hemorrhage, ulceration (Hum Pathol 1986;17:94)
  • Involves submucosa but not muscularis propria
  • May be associated with pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia of bladder (Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:92)
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Brain images: arteriovenous malformation

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