Lung

Cystic disease / congenital anomalies

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia



Topic Completed: 1 August 2011

Minor changes: 16 July 2020

Copyright: 2003-2021, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed search: bronchopulmonary dysplasia [title] lung

Elliot Weisenberg, M.D.
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Cite this page: Weisenberg E. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/lungnontumorBPD.html. Accessed October 25th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Complication of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy for treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
  • Infants almost always < 1200 gram birth weight and < 30 weeks gestation
  • Definition: requirement for supplemental oxygen for longer than 28 days of age, and a postmenstrual age of at least 36 weeks (eMedicine)
Etiology
  • Due to decreased alveolar septation and capillary derangement, secondary to arrested septation of lungs, due to therapy in the saccular stage of lung development
  • Free radicals generated by oxygen therapy and inflammatory cytokines play a role in pathogenesis
Clinical features
  • Incidence has fallen with use of surfactant therapy in premature infants for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (Semin Perinatol 2006;30:171)
  • Respiratory distress continues for months
  • Patients have limited pulmonary reserve, develop repeated infections, often have pulmonary hypertension and develop cor pulmonale
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Bronchiolar and interstitial fibrosis, compensatory emphysema of less damaged acini
  • Inadequate alveolar development causes fewer but larger alveoli
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Severe fibrosis

Severe fibrosis

Large alveoli

Large alveoli

Additional references
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