Gross/Macroscopic Variations and Conditions

Umbilical cord

Torsion / hypercoiling

Last author update: 1 November 2011
Last staff update: 28 October 2020

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PubMed Search: Umbilical cord[title] (torsion OR hypercoiling)

Mandolin S. Ziadie, M.D.
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Cite this page: Ziadie MS. Torsion / hypercoiling. website. Accessed December 9th, 2022.
Definition / general
  • Normal umbilical cord has approximately 1 coil per 5 cm
  • Number of coils is related to fetal movement
  • Torsion / hypercoiling (> 2 coils per 5 cm) is associated with extremely long cords, twin gestation and cocaine; has increased risk of fetal growth restriction or death
  • Associated with fibrosis and loss of Wharton jelly (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:1352)
Gross images

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Torsion of umbilical cord

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