Parathyroid gland
Parathyroid gland hyperplasia

Author: Monika Roychowdhury, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 11 April 2018, last major update January 2013

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Parathyroid gland hyperplasia[TIAB]

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Cite this page: Roychowdhury, M. Parathyroid gland hyperplasia. website. Accessed January 21st, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Usually all 4 glands are involved but may be asymmetrical with lower glands being larger
  • Weight of all glands usually 1 - 3 g
  • Usually chief cell hyperplasia, occasionally water clear cell hyperplasia; adipose tissue is rare
  • Some believe adenoma and hyperplasia are different morphologic manifestations of the same process
  • May show clonality
Gross images

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Three and one half glands removed

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Usually no rim of compressed normal tissue
  • May have mitotic activity
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Figs D / E: nodular parathyroid hyperplasia

Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • Sporadic or part of MEN 1 or 2A
Differential diagnosis
  • Adenoma: usually encapsulated, affects one gland with compression of adjacent tissue; most important criterion - no recurrence of hypercalcemia after 5 year followup