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Parathyroid gland


Parathyroid gland hyperplasia

Reviewer: Monika Roychowdhury, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 16 February 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Usually all 4 glands are involved, but may be asymmetrical with lower glands being larger
● Weight of all glands usually 1-3 g
● Usually chief cell hyperplasia, occasionally water clear cell hyperplasia; adipose tissue is rare
● Some believe adenoma and hyperplasia are different morphologic manifestations of the same process
● May show clonality

Gross images

Three and one-half glands removed

Micro description

● Usually no rim of compressed normal tissue
● May have mitotic activity

Micro images

Figures D/E: nodular parathyroid hyperplasia

Molecular / cytogenetics description

● Sporadic or part of MEN 1 or 2A

Differential diagnosis

Adenoma: usually encapsulated, affects one gland with compression of adjacent tissue; most important criterion - no recurrence of hypercalcemia after 5 year follow up

End of Parathyroid gland > Hyperparathyroidism > Parathyroid gland hyperplasia

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