Stains
PAX2

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 2 December 2015, last major update November 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: PAX2 [title]

Cite this page: PAX2. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainspax2.html. Accessed December 7th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Paired-box 2; nuclear transcription factor, structurally similar to PAX8 with virtually identical expression in non-neoplastic tissue
  • Essential in embryonic development of müllerian organs and hindbrain
  • Suppressed through promoter methylation at later stages of embryonic development, but is reactivated during carcinogenesis (J Cell Mol Med 2013;17:1048)
Clinical Features
Uses by Pathologists
Micro Images

Images hosted on Other servers:

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Quality control

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Kidney, multicystic dysplasia

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Kidney, clear cell RCC

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Kidney, RCC

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Kidney, collecting duct carcinoma

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Kidney, normal & tumors

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Kidney, hemangioblastoma

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Skin, nevi, melanoma

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Uterus, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia



Nature images:

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Ovary, tumors

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Ovary, high grade carcinomas

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Bladder / GU: nephrogenic adenoma

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Fallopian tube

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Kidney, fetal

Positive Staining - Normal
Positive Staining - Disease
Negative Staining
  • Adenomatoid tumor
  • Bladder: clear cell adenocarcinoma (usually)
  • Kidney: angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts and synovial sarcoma are negative, but PAX2 and PAX8 often positive in epithelial cysts, likely due to entrapment and dilation of renal tubules (Am J Surg Pathol 2011;35:1264)
  • Kidney: carcinoid
  • Kidney: Ewing/PNET, neuroblastoma, T-ALL
  • Mesothelioma (Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2012;20:272)
  • Testis: normal seminiferous tubules or interstitium; germ cell tumors, Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors (Am J Surg Pathol 2011;35:1473)
  • Uterus: usually (71%) loss of PAX2 staining