Stomach
Gastritis
Acute gastritis

Authors: Elliot Weisenberg, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 22 November 2016, last major update August 2012

Copyright: (c) 2003-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: acute gastritis[title]
Cite this page: Acute gastritis. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stomachacutegastritis.html. Accessed December 7th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Includes acute hemorrhage and acute erosive gastritis
  • Acute mucosal inflammatory process, usually transient (normal stomach has only rare inflammatory cells)
  • Associated with heavy use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin), excessive alcohol use, heavy smoking, cancer chemotherapy, bile reflux, uremia, systemic infections (Salmonella), severe stress (trauma, burns, surgery), ischemia and shock, acid / alkali ingestion as part of suicide attempts, gastric irradiation or freezing, mechanical trauma (nasogastric tube), distal gastrectomy
  • Symptoms: none; or pain, nausea and vomiting
  • May be accompanied by local hemorrhage or mucosal sloughing
  • Severe erosive disease may cause acute GI bleed, acute gastric ulcer
  • Major cause of massive hematemesis in alcoholics
  • Occurs in 25% of those who take daily aspirin for rheumatoid arthritis
  • 20% develop overt bleeding; fatal in up to 5%
  • Treatment: proton pump inhibitors reduce severity of mucosal damage and facilitate healing
Etiology
  • Mucosal damage due to increased acid secretion with back diffusion into mucosa, decreased bicarbonate buffer, reduced blood flow, disruption of mucous layer
Gross Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Various images

Micro Description
  • Mild: modest edema of lamina propria, vascular congestion, intact epithelium, scattered neutrophils, and hemorrhage in mucosa, erosions with more severe disease
  • Moderate / severe: loss of superficial epithelium above muscularis mucosa, accompanied by hemorrhage and variable acute inflammatory infiltrate and extrusion of a fibrinopurulent exudate into the lumen, nearby epithelium may show regenerative changes
Micro Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Acute gastritis