Oral cavity
Congenital anomalies

Topic Completed: 1 January 2013

Revised: 30 January 2019

Copyright: (c) 2002-2019, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Epulis[TI] oral cavity[mh]
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Cite this page: Thakral C Epulis. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/oralcavityepulis.html. Accessed March 22nd, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Congenital granular cell tumor of alveolar mucosa of jaw in newborns
  • 90% girls; 10% present as multiple lesions
  • Doesn't recur, even if incompletely excised
  • 0.5 - 2 cm soft, pedunculated mucosal mass
  • Spontaneously regresses over first 8 months of life (Am J Surg Pathol 1981;5:37)
  • Congenital granular cell myoblastoma, granular cell epulis of infancy and granular cell fibroblastoma
  • Exclusively on anterior alveolar ridge of maxilla and mandible, usually overlying future canine and lateral incisor teeth
Case reports
Clinical images

Contributed by Dr. Dhiraj B. Nikumbh

2 day old girl with
difficulty eating and
breathing due to
upper jaw lesion

Images hosted on other servers:

Lesion at 3 weeks

Lesion at 16 months

Tumor arising from anterior maxillary alveolus

Mass protruding from mouth

Gross images

Contributed by Dr. Dhiraj B. Nikumbh:

Congenital granular cell tumor

Images hosted on other servers:

Homogenous appearance

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Confluent to nodular submucosal growth of tumors composed of large polygonal cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and small central nuclei
  • Overlying epithelium is atrophic; does NOT show pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (common with granular cell tumor of adults)
Microscopic (histologic) images
Contributed by Dr. Dhiraj B. Nikumbh:

Tissue bits lined
by stratified
squamous epithelium,
tumor is beneath

Tumor composed of cells having
abundant granular eosinophilic
cytoplasm with monomorphic vesicular
nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli


Images hosted on other servers:

Polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm and small round nuclei

Meshwork of delicate blood vessels

Positive stains
Negative stains
Electron microscopy images

Images hosted on other servers:

Granules and lysosomes

Differential diagnosis
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