CD Markers

Topic Completed: 1 January 2011

Minor changes: 2 October 2020

Copyright: 2002-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD40 [title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. CD40. website. Accessed January 16th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells, required for their activation
  • Also called TNF receptor superfamily member 5; ligand is CD40L (CD154)
  • Plays a central role in regulating cell-mediated immunity and antibody mediated immunity
  • Also mediates T cell dependent immunoglobulin class switching, memory cell development and germinal center formation
Clinical features
  • Cardiovascular disease:
    • May mediate inflammatory component of atherogenesis
    • Variation of CD40 gene is associated with coronary artery calcification in diabetes (Am Heart J 2006;151:706)
    • CD40 / CD40L signaling contributes to inflammatory and prothrombogenic responses and brain infarction induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (Circulation 2005;111:1690) and to acute cerebral ischemia (Stroke 2003;34:1412)
    • CD40 mediated platelet activation may play a role in thrombosis, inflammation and atherosclerosis (Circ Res 2003;92:1041)
    • Effects may be mediated by soluble form of CD40L (Ann Med 2011;43:331)
  • Has role in pathogenesis of various autoimmune disorders (Semin Immunol 2009;21:293)
  • Mutations may cause hyper IgM disease type 3 (OMIM - 606843) with opportunistic infections due to inability of B cells to undergo type switching and to defective T cell mediated immunity (Blood 2003;102:4099)
  • CD40-CD40L binding may cause microglial activation, and contribute to Alzheimer's disease (CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2010;9:149)
  • Epithelial CD40 may cause inflammatory disorders, generation of self-tolerance and chronic rejection of allografts (Semin Immunol 2009;21:289)
  • EBV LMP1 is a constitutively active functional mimic of CD40, utilizing TNFR-associated factor adaptor proteins to induce signaling (J Biol Chem 2011;286:9948)
Uses by pathologists
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
Prognostic factors
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Soft tissue sarcomas

Positive staining - normal
  • B cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, platelets
  • Also astrocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes, Langerhans cells (in oral mucosa), microglia, nevus cells, pancreatic islet cells (Diabetologia 2005;48:268), prostatic acini, other epithelial cells
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
Additional references
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