CD Markers
CD50-59


Topic Completed: 1 September 2013

Minor changes: 14 May 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD50[title], CD51, CD52[title], CD53, CD54[TI] free full text[sb], CD55[title], CD58[title], CD59[title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. CD50-59. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cdmarkerscd50.html. Accessed June 23rd, 2021.
CD50
CD51
  • Also called integrin alpha chain V or vitronectin receptor alpha chain
  • Integrins are membrane receptors for extracellular matrix mediated cell adhesion and migration, cytoskeletal organization, cell proliferation, cell survival and differentiation
  • Integrins are composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain
  • Alpha V integrins are a subset of integrins with a common alpha V subunit combined with beta subunits 1, 3, 5, 6 or 8
  • The beta chain of the vitronectin receptor is CD61
  • Most alpha V integrins recognize the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence in various ligands such as vitronectin, fibronectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, thrombospondin, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, tenascin or agrin
  • Alpha V beta 3 integrin may mediate melanoma progression (Oncogene 2005;24:4710)
  • CD51 on some dendritic cells serves as adenovirus receptor (J Leukoc Biol 2006;79:1271)
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: endothelial cells, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, monocytes and macrophages, placenta cytotrophoblast and Hofbauer cells and fibroblasts (Histochemistry 1991;96:169, Acta Histochem 2003;105:253)
  • Positive staining - disease: osteoclast disorders including osteoclast-like giant cell neoplasms and inflamed synovium (Mod Pathol 2006;19:161, Ann Rheum Dis 1993;52:182)
  • Negative staining: cartilage (Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:448)
  • Reference: OMIM #193210
CD52
CD53
  • Most specific and reliable panleukocyte marker
  • Encodes member of tetraspanin family, a cell surface protein with 4 hydrophobic domains that mediate signal transduction
  • Also has adhesion / activation functions
  • Upregulated in macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (Mol Cells 2004;17:125)
  • May transduce CD2 generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells
  • May be a thymocyte selection marker, with CD69 (Int Immunol 2002;14:249)
  • Familial deficiency is associated with recurrent infectious diseases (Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1997;4:229)
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: leukocytes; also dendritic cells, osteoclasts and osteoblasts and mesangial cells (Kidney Int 2003;63:534)
  • Positive staining - disease: radioresistant tumor cells
  • Negative staining: platelets, red blood cells and nonhematopoietic cells
  • Reference: OMIM #151525
CD54
  • Also called ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1)
  • Ligand for LFA-1 (CD50)
  • Receptor for:
  • Involved in adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium at site of inflammation
  • Reacts with CD11a / CD18 or CD11b / CD18, resulting in immune reaction or inflammation
  • Reduced expression in endometrial cells may contribute to endometriosis (Immunol Lett 2002;80:49)
  • Positive staining - normal: broad, B and T cells and B cell precursors, monocytes, osteoclasts, endothelial cells and epithelial cells (various)
  • Positive staining - tumors: keratoacanthoma (more in fully developed lesions with inflammatory infiltrate), cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (focal if well differentiated, intense if poorly differentiated) (Mod Pathol 2003;16:8)
  • Negative staining: intravascular B cell lymphoma
  • Reference: OMIM #147840
CD55
  • Also called complement decay accelerating factor (DAF)
  • Gene encodes Cromer blood group
  • Binds C3bBb (alternative pathway convertase) and C4b2a (classical pathway convertase) to accelerate decay of the C3 convertases; protects against inappropriate complement activation (J Biol Chem 2005;280:2569)
  • Receptor for CD97, echovirus and Coxsackie B virus (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:10325, J Virol 1998;72:9407)
  • Also is part of lipopolysaccharide-induced receptor complex (Eur J Immunol 2003;33:1399)
  • Genetic defects that cause a reduction or loss of both CD59 and CD55 on erythrocytes produce paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); also cause defective platelets, granulocytes, erythrocytes and possibly lymphocytes
  • CD55 deficiency is common in patients treated with Campath (anti-CD52), which may predispose to PNH (Transplant Proc 2006;38:1750)
  • A minor population of CD55 - CD59 negative granulocytes and red blood cells predicts a good response to immunosuppressive therapy in patients with acquired aplastic anemia (Blood 2006;107:1308)
  • Loss of CD55 is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer (Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:2797)
  • Case reports: pregnant woman in her early 40's with thrombocytopenia due to PNH (Univ Pittsburgh Case #419)
  • Uses by pathologists: diagnosis of PNH (Am J Clin Pathol 2006;126:781)
  • Positive staining - normal: all hematopoietic cells and all cell types in intimate contact with complement proteins; also epithelial cells lining extracellular compartments, body fluids and extracellular matrix
  • Reference: OMIM #125240
CD56
CD57
CD58
CD59
  • Also called protectin, complement regulatory molecule
  • Regulates complement mediated cell lysis by inhibiting formation of membrane attack complex (MAC); binds to C8 or C9 components, preventing incorporation of multiple copies of C9 required for complete formation of osmolytic core
  • Also makes cells susceptible to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity (J Immunol 2006;176:2915)
  • Genetic defects that reduce both CD59 and CD55 on erythrocytes produce paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); also cause defective platelets, granulocytes, erythrocytes and possibly lymphocytes
  • Low CD59 levels may also cause PNH-like symptoms after Campath therapy (Transplant Proc 2006;38:1750)
  • Not a particularly good marker for detecting PNH+ monocytes (Am J Clin Pathol 2006;126:781)
  • In diabetes, glycation may inhibit CD59, causing MAC deposition in vessels, leading to vascular complications (Diabetes 2004;53:2653)
  • May resist complement mediated lysis via a surface CD59 like protein:
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: most cells
  • Positive staining - disease: squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (J Oral Pathol Med 2006;35:560)
  • Reference: OMIM #107271
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

CD50: normal
uterine cervix
and cervical
cancer tissues

CD52: cryostat
sections stained
with biotinylated
Campath-1H

CD52: paraffin
wax sections
stained with
Campath-1G

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CD55: breast carcinoma staining


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CD55: breast carcinoma staining

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CD58: buccal
mucosa with
intense LFA 3+
staining

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CD58: cardiac muscle with LFA-3+ staining

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CD58: cerebellum, liver, skin


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CD58: proximal tubule and distal tubule (kidney)

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CD58: cells near
seminiferous tubule
boundary (testis)

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CD59: diabetic and nondiabetic:
kidneys (left), nerves (right)

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