Stains & CD markers

Last author update: 1 February 2002
Last staff update: 19 April 2023

Copyright: 2002-2023,, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD60, CD64[title], CD65, CD65s, CD66, CD66b, CD66c, CD66d, pregnancy-specific beta-1 glycoprotein, CD69[title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. CD60-69. website. Accessed September 28th, 2023.
CD60 (CDw60)
  • Use of CD60, CDw60 and CD60a, CD60b and CD60c is inconsistent
  • Not proteins but oligosaccharides present on gangliosides
  • Antibodies provide costimulatory signals for T cells
  • Expressed on most T cells in autoimmune lesions (Immunol Invest 2001;30:67)
  • CD8+ CD60+ T cells may regulate IgE memory responses and isotype switching (Hum Immunol 2005;66:1029)
  • Associated with Th1 immune response in skin (Br J Dermatol 2003;149:739)
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal:
    • Platelets, T cells (30%), thymic epithelium, activated keratinocytes, melanocytes, synovial fibroblasts, glomeruli, smooth muscle cells and astrocytes (Carbohydr Res 2000;329:791)
    • Also epithelium of reproductive system, exocrine and endocrine glands (Histochem J 2000;32:447)
  • Positive staining - disease: T cells in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, monocytes in cutaneous T cell lymphoma (Acta Derm Venereol 2001;81:263)
  • Negative staining: B cells, granulocytes and monocytes
  • Reference: Glycoforum: Glycolipid [Accessed 5 May 2021]
  • GD3: carbohydrate structure
  • Not a protein: oligosaccharide present on gangliosides
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • 9-O-acetyl-GD3 - carbohydrate structure
  • Intracellular regulators of apoptosis in T lymphocytes (Glycobiology 2011;21:1161)
  • Expressed during rat central nervous system development and mainly associated with neuronal migration (Stem Cells Int 2017;2017:5759490)
  • Other names: UM4D4
  • Positive stains: subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ peripheral T cells, platelets and monocytes
  • 7-O-acetyl-GD3 - carbohydrate structure
  • Not a protein: oligosaccharide present on gangliosides
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Also called Fc gamma RI, CD64A
  • High affinity receptor binds to Fc region of IgG
  • Important in phagocytosis via receptor mediated endocytosis of IgG antigen complexes
  • Mediates antigen capture for presentation to T cells, antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, release of cytokines and reactive oxygen intermediates
  • Also binds to C reaction protein and mediates its effects (J Biol Chem 2005;280:25095)
  • Denge fever immune complexes enter macrophages via CD64 (J Virol 2006;80:10128)
  • Uses by pathologists:
  • Positive staining - normal: antigen presenting cells including macrophages / monocytes, activated granulocytes and dendritic cells; also early myeloid cells
  • Positive staining - disease: AML M3 (usually); M4, M5, M0 - M2 (variable) (Am J Clin Pathol 1998;110:797)
  • Negative staining: AML M7
  • Reference: OMIM: 146760 [Accessed 5 May 2021]
  • Also called VIM2, ceramide dodecasaccharide, dimeric sialyl CD15
  • Adhesive carbohydrate (not a protein) that appears to be significant risk factor for extravascular AML infiltration (Leuk Res 2001;25:847)
  • Uses by pathologists: myeloid antigen used in flow cytometry
  • Positive staining - normal: myeloid cells, monocytes
  • Positive staining - disease: AML
  • Negative staining: lymphocytes
  • Also called sialylated CD65
  • Carbohydrate antigen, not a protein
  • Appears when CD34 antigen disappears
  • Antibodies may either recognize CD65s (sialylated) or CD65 (nonsialylated)
  • Uses by pathologists: for acute leukemia cell typing and to identify a subset of pre-B ALL (Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:380)
  • Positive staining - normal: granulocytes, monocytes
  • Positive staining - disease: myeloid leukemia, low levels in AML M0 - M1 (Leukemia 2003;17:1544)
  • Also called CEACAM1, biliary glycoprotein, BGP, C-CAM, CD66A
  • Primordial protein of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family
  • Cell adhesion molecule capable of activating neutrophils
  • Receptor for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitides; binding prevents epithelial detachment, a defense mechanism that hinders colonization (J Cell Biol 2005;170:825)
  • With osteopontin, may mediate invasion of extravillous trophoblast at maternal fetal interface (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:5407)
  • Interactions with CEA inhibit NK cell cytotoxicity (J Immunol 2005;174:6692)
  • Downregulated in:
  • Uses by pathologists: expression predicts metastases in cutaneous melanoma (J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2530)
  • Positive staining - normal: granulocytes, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, prostate glands and ducts (dense), bile canaliculi between liver cells, extravillous trophoblast (Am J Pathol 2000;156:1165)
  • Positive staining - disease: low grade prostate carcinoma
  • Negative staining: high grade (Gleason 4/5) prostate carcinoma
  • Reference: OMIM: 109770 [Accessed 5 May 2021]
CD66b (formerly CD67)
  • Also called CEACAM8. NCA-95 and CGM6; formerly CD67
  • Cell adhesion molecule capable of activating neutrophils
  • Increased expression on peripheral blood neutrophils and eosinophils of rheumatoid arthritis patients (Scand J Immunol 1999;50:433)
  • Uses by pathologists: marker for granulocytes
  • Positive staining - normal: granulocytes
  • Positive staining - disease: chronic myelogenous leukemia, cardiomyocytes in areas of infarction (Cancer Res 1990;50:6534, Cardiovasc Res 1999;41:603)
  • Also called nonspecific cross reactive antigen, CEACAM6, NCA 50/90
  • Cell adhesion molecule capable of activating neutrophils
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: granulocytes
  • Positive staining - disease: ALL (43%) (BMC Cancer 2005;5:38)
  • Reference: OMIM: 163980 [Accessed 5 May 2021]
CD66e / CEA
  • Also called pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein, PSG1
  • May be involved in immune regulation, protection of fetus from maternal immune system
  • Released into maternal circulation during pregnancy
  • Low levels in maternal blood predict spontaneous abortion
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: syncytiotrophoblasts, fetal liver and myeloid cells
  • Positive staining - disease: hydatidiform and invasive moles, choriocarcinoma (J Clin Pathol 1977;30:19)
  • Reference: OMIM: 176390 [Accessed 5 May 2021]
  • Also called activation inducer molecule (AIM), early activation antigen (EA1)
  • Earliest inducible cell surface glycoprotein acquired during lymphoid activation
  • Involved in early events of T cell, NK cell, monocyte and platelet activation
  • Associated with Th1 T cell differentiation and associated cytokines (IL2, TNF alpha, interferon gamma) (Hum Pathol 2002;33:330)
  • Highly expressed on T cells from inflammatory infiltrates of rheumatoid arthritis, viral hepatitis and autoimmune thyroid disorders (Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004;22:331)
  • Expression on CD3+ and CD8+ peripheral blood T cells correlates with acute graft rejection in renal allograft recipients (Transplantation 2003;76:190)
  • May promote lymphocyte retention in lymphoid organs (Nature 2006;440:540)
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: activated T cells, B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, epidermal Langerhans cells, platelets and thymocytes
  • Positive staining - disease: peripheral T cell lymphoma (Am J Clin Pathol 2003;120:866)
  • Reference: OMIM: 107273 [Accessed 5 May 2021]
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:
Missing Image

CD66: colon

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CD66: expression at maternal fetal surface

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CD66: various breast lesions

ovum (CD66f+,

Normal placenta (CD66f+, trophoblast)

Hydatidiform mole

Invasive mole
(CD66f+, large
trophoblast cells)

of uterus (CD66f+,

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