CD Markers
CD20-29


Topic Completed: 1 February 2014

Minor changes: 20 May 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD20[title], CD22[title], CD24[title], CD25[TI] review[ptyp], cd26[title], CD28[title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
Page views in 2021 to date: 782
Cite this page: Pernick N. CD20-29. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cdmarkerscd20to29.html. Accessed June 20th, 2021.
CD20
CD21
CD22
CD23
CD24
CD25
CD26
CD27
CD28
  • Receptor important in CD4+ T cell activation, IL2 production and T helper 2 development (OMIM #186760)
  • Plays a critical role in controlling the adaptive arm of the immune response (Blood 2005;105:13)
  • Pathophysiology:
    • T cells require 2 signals for full activation: (1) binding of the antigen / MHC complex on the antigen presenting cell to the T cell receptor; (2) interaction of CD28 with its ligands CD80 (B7-1) or CD86 (B7-2), found on activated B cells and called a costimulation signal
    • Costimulatory signal induces T cell activation and survival, interleukin 2 production, T helper type 2 development and clonal expansion
    • CD28 is a constitutive, high abundance, low affinity receptor; its binding also increases expression of CTLA4 (CD152), a structurally related cell surface receptor on T cells which competes with CD28 for the same ligands but has opposite effects (J Clin Immunol 2002;22:1, Curr Pharm Des 2006;12:149)
    • CD8+, CD28+ T cells are antigen specific cytotoxic T cells (class I restricted) and constitute 90% of CD8+ T cells
    • CD8+, CD28- T cells are suppressor T cells; loss of CD28 expression in T cells is associated with various infectious and autoimmune diseases and aging:
  • Clinical features:
  • No significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: CD4+ T cells (95%), CD8+ T cells (50%); activated B cells, thymocytes and plasma cells (some)
  • Positive staining - disease: myeloma (95%) (Blood 2014;123:3770)
CD29
Diagrams / tables

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Development of CD4+ CD25+ T cells

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CD28: costimulation

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Competition between CTLA4 and CD28 for same ligands

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CD28 costimulation is also required for proper memory cell activation

Microscopic (histologic) images

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CD22: high grade B cell lymphoma, fig F

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CD22: B-ALL, fig D

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CD22: Burkitt lymphoma, fig D

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CD22: normal tonsil

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CD24: bladder carcinoma


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CD24: colon, lung, ovary (left to right)

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CD24: DCIS (breast)

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CD24: extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma

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CD24: salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma


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CD25: HTLV1+ adult T cell leukemia / lymphoma

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CD25: mastocytosis

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CD26: normal colon

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CD26: proximal tubules (kidney)


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CD26: prostate carcinoma

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CD29: lung cancer

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