Colon tumor
Polyps
Traditional serrated adenoma


Topic Completed: 1 February 2018

Revised: 20 June 2019

Copyright: 2003-2019, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Colon tumor traditional serrated adenoma [title]


 Enoch Kuo, M.D.
Raul S. Gonzalez, M.D.
Page views in 2018: 10,566
Page views in 2019 to date: 6,840
Cite this page: Kuo E, Gonzalez R. Traditional serrated adenoma. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/colontumortraditionalserratedadenoma.html. Accessed June 25th, 2019.
Definition / general
Essential features
  • Neoplastic polyp of the colon
  • Shows dysplastic appearing nuclei and prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm
Terminology
ICD coding
Epidemiology
Sites
Pathophysiology
  • May arise from microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (MVHP) and sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) (Hum Pathol 2015;46:933)
  • Generally considered to be intrinsically dysplastic, though some argue against this view (Hum Pathol 2015;46:933)
Etiology
Clinical features
  • Incidental finding on colonoscopy
Diagnosis
Radiology description
  • Screening CT colonography may identify large (~14 mm) traditional serrated adenomas (Radiology 2016;280:455)
Prognostic factors
Treatment
  • Endoscopic removal of the adenoma
  • US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer recommends a 3 year surveillance interval after initial diagnosis of traditional serrated adenomas (Gastroenterology 2012;143:844)
Gross description
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Protuberant villiform growth pattern with slit-like serrations
  • Pseudostratified epithelial columnar cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and dark, pencillate, dysplastic-like nuclei
  • Ectopic crypt foci / formations are a key feature (abnormally positioned crypts with bases not seated at the muscularis mucosae) (Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:21)
  • High grade adenomatous dysplasia may be present
  • Goblet cells present
  • Mucin rich variant is characterized by > 50% goblet cells and fewer ectopic crypt formations (Histopathology 2017;71:208)
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Enoch Kuo, M.D.
Missing Image Missing Image

Traditional serrated adenoma

Positive stains
Negative stains
Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • MAPK pathway activation is a critical initiating event, either by a BRAF or KRAS mutation (Hum Pathol 2015;46:933)
  • MAPK pathway activation is followed by CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)
  • BRAF mutated traditional serrated adenomas are more frequently CpG island methylator phenotype high (Mod Pathol 2015;28:414, Hum Pathol 2015;46:933)
  • Most cases have no defects in mismatch repair (microsatellite stable)
  • PTPRK RSPO3 gene fusions may be present (Histopathology 2017;71:601)
Differential diagnosis
Board review question #1
    Which mutation is most common in traditional serrated adenomas?

  1. BRAF mutation
  2. CDKN2A mutation
  3. KRAS mutation
  4. TP53 mutation
Board review answer #1
A. BRAF and KRAS mutations in traditional serrated adenomas are almost mutually exclusive with approximately 67% having BRAF mutations and 22% with KRAS mutations. BRAF mutated traditional serrated adenomas are more likely to be CpG island methylator phenotype high. TP53 mutation and CDKN2A silencing by methylation are seen in areas with conventional dysplasia (Mod Pathol 2015;28:414).

Reference: Colon tumor - Traditional serrated adenoma

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