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General
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Whole mount images
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Small endophytic tumor

Total retinal detachment and collapse
of anterior chamber due to partially
necrotic tumor with viable cells
surrounding blood vessels in a
sleeve pattern, no involvement
of choroid, sclera or optic nerve

Large tumor fills globe with massive choroid and extraocular invasion

Bilateral tumor (patient died of intracranial
tumor): left-multicentric tumor without
optic nerve invasion; right-regressed
tumor after radiation therapy
without optic nerve invasion

CT scan images
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Ovoid retinal tumor

Round retinal tumor with focal calcification

Prognostic factors
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Case reports
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Treatment
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Clinical images
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Leukocoria (white reflux) due to retinal tumor

Strabismus without leukocoria (early clinical sign)

Fundus images
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Translucent intraretinal tumor with focal opacified areas representing calcification

Fluffy retinal tumor has grown into vitreous, retinal vessels are obscured by tumor

Retinal tumor invades subretinal space-retinal vessels pass over tumor

Gross description
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Gross images
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Marked advanced tumor with massive extraocular extension in 6 year old from 1917 (typical of US cases at that time)

Advanced tumor from African patient with destruction of anterior segment of eye and extraocular extension

Small retinal tumor with large white areas of necrosis

Small retinal tumor with foci of calcification


Three small retinal tumors

Large area of choroidal invasion next to partially necrotic retinal tumor

Large exophytic tumor with focal calcification causes total exudative retinal detachment

Large exophytic tumor with enlargement of optic nerve due to invasion

Micro description
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Micro images
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Nodules of tumor cells seed inner surface of retina

Tumor cells involve anterior chamber, iris and angle structures

Viable tumor cells surround blood vessels and form sleeves

Endophytic tumor adjacent to optic nerve head with sleeve pattern

Sleeve pattern and Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes


Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes

Homer-Wright rosettes

Poorly differentiated tumor cells with large hyperchromatic nuclei and numerous mitotic figures

DNA deposition (basophilic staining) in blood vessel walls (Azzopardi phenomenon)

Spindle-shaped glia

Necrotic tumor


Benign cytology-fleurettes consisting of small clusters of eosinophilic bulbous processes extending into lumen resembling photoreceptors

Invasion of optic nerve head

Invasion of optic nerve to level of lamina cribrosa

Invasion of optic nerve parenchyma posterior to lamina cribrosa but not involving the margin

Invasion of full thickness of choroid

Cytology images
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Clumps and individual tumor cells

Positive stains
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Negative stains
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Electron microscopy description
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Electron microscopy images
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Bulbous process of fleurette contains numerous mitochondria

Differential diagnosis
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End of Eye > Retina > Retinoblastoma of retina



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