Bladder

Authors/Editors: Turki Al-Hussain, M.D., Alcides Chaux, M.D., Andreas Gaumann, M.D., Gillian Levy, M.D., Dr. Rugvedita Parakh, Anil Parwani, M.D., Nat Pernick, M.D., Monika Roychowdhury, M.D., Tom Tong, M.D., Mirna N. Toukatly, M.D., Maria Tretiakova, M.D. (Editor) (see Authors page)

Revised: 18 August 2015, last major update July 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

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Table of contents

General: primary referencesembryologynormal anatomynormal histology

Cytology: generalnormal findingsnon-neoplastic lesionsprimary noninvasive urothelial neoplasmsprimary invasive neoplasmssecondary neoplasmsbiomarker testingformat of diagnostic report

Congenital anomalies: AV malformationduplicationectopic prostateexstrophyhypoplasiapatent urachuspersistent cloaca

Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies: amyloidosiscollagen polypcystocelediverticulaendocervicosisendometriosisendosalpingiosislithiasisobstructionpseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasiaTamm-Horsfall proteintreatment effecturinary diversion / neobladder

Cystitis: acuteBK virusbullouschroniccystitis cystica / glandularisemphysematouseosinophilicfolliculargranulomatoushemorrhagicinterstitialmalakoplakiapolypoid / papillaryradiationschistosomiasisxanthogranulomatous

Metaplasia: intestinal metaplasianephrogenic metaplasiasquamous metaplasia

Nonurothelial benign tumors: condylomafibroepithelial polyphemangiomainflammatory myofibroblastic tumorleiomyomaneurofibromapostoperative granulomaspost-operative spindle cell noduleprostatic-type polypsolitary fibrous tumorurachal lesionsvillous adenoma

Urothelial nonneplastic lesions: WHO/ISUP classificationflat hyperplasiapapillary hyperplasiaflat lesions with reactive atypiaflat lesions with atypia of unknown significancedysplasia

Urothelial neoplasms-noninvasive: carcinoma in situlow grade papillaryhigh grade papillarypapillary neoplasm of low malignant potentialurothelial papillomainverted urothelial papilloma

Urothelial carcinoma-invasive: WHO/ISUP classificationgeneralendophyticlarge cell neuroendocrinelymphoepithelioma-likelymphoma-likemicrocysticmicropapillarynestedplasmacytoidrhabdoidsarcomatoidwith glandular differentiationwith squamous differentiationwith trophoblastic differentiationundifferentiated-generalundifferentiated-large cellundifferentiated-osteoclast rich

Adenocarcinoma: in situgeneralclear cellhepatoidprostaticsignet ringurachal

Other carcinomas: metastasessmall cellsquamous cell

Other tumors: angiosarcomacarcinoidgastrointestinal stromal tumor/GISTgerm cell tumorleiomyosarcomalymphomamelanomaosteosarcomaparagangliomaperivascular epithelioid cell tumorplasmacytomarhabdomyosarcomaurachal sarcoma

Miscellaneous: stagingfrozen sectionsgrossingfeatures to report-TURBTfeatures to report-cystectomy


Index (Alphabetical table of contents)

A-E: acute cystitisadenocarcinoma in situadenocarcinoma generalamyloidosisangiosarcomaAV malformationBK virusbullous cystitiscarcinoidcarcinoma in situchronic cystitisclear cell adenocarcinomacollagen polypcondylomacystitis cystica / glandulariscystocelecytology-biomarker testingcytology-format of diagnostic reportcytology-generalcytology-non-neoplastic lesionscytology-normal findingscytology-primary invasive neoplasmscytology-primary noninvasive urothelial neoplasmscytology-secondary neoplasmsdiverticuladuplicationdysplasiaectopic prostateembryologyemphysematous cystitisendocervicosisendometriosisendophytic carcinomaendosalpingiosiseosinophilic cystitisexstrophy

F-N: features to report-cystectomyfeatures to report-TURBTfibroepithelial polypflat hyperplasiaflat lesions with atypia of unknown significanceflat lesions with reactive atypiafollicular cystitisfrozen sectionsgastrointestinal stromal tumor/GISTgerm cell tumorgranulomatous cystitisgrossinghemangiomahemorrhagic cystitishepatoid adenocarcinomahigh grade papillary carcinomahypoplasiainflammatory myofibroblastic tumorinterstitial cystitisintestinal metaplasiainvasive urothelial carcinoma-generalinverted urothelial papillomalarge cell neuroendocrine carcinomaleiomyomaleiomyosarcomalithiasislow grade papillary carcinomalymphoepithelioma-like carcinomalymphomalymphoma-like carcinomamalakoplakiamelanomametastasesmicrocystic carcinomamicropapillary carcinomanephrogenic metaplasianested carcinomaneurofibromanormal anatomynormal histology

O-Z: obstructionosteosarcomapapillary hyperplasiapapillary neoplasm of low malignant potentialparagangliomapatent urachusperivascular epithelioid cell tumorpersistent cloacaplasmacytoid carcinomaplasmacytomapolypoid / papillary cystitispostoperative granulomaspostoperative spindle cell noduleprostatic adenocarcinomaprostatic-type polyppseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasiaradiation cystitisrhabdoid carcinomarhabdomyosarcomasarcomatoid carcinomaschistosomiasissignet ring adenocarcinomasmall cell carcinomasolitary fibrous tumorsquamous cell carcinomasquamous metaplasiastagingTamm-Horsfall proteintreatment effectundifferentiated carcinoma-generalundifferentiated-large cellundifferentiated carcinoma-osteoclast richurachal adenocarcinomaurachal lesionsurachal sarcomaurinary diversion / neobladderurothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiationurothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiationurothelial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiationurothelial papillomavillous adenomaWHO/ISUP classification of invasive bladder carcinomaWHO/ISUP classification of urothelial nonneplastic lesionsxanthogranulomatous cystitis


Primary references
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AJCC Cancer Staging Manual (7th ed)
Eble: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs, 2004
Murphy: Tumors of the Kidney and Bladder (AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Series 3, Vol 11); 1994
Murphy: Tumors of the Kidney Bladder and Related Urinary Structures (AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 4th Series, Vol 1); 2004
Websites: Johns Hopkins Cytopathology Tutorial Johns Hopkins WHO/ISUP Tutorial websitePathoPicWebpathology.com

Recent Bladder / GU pathology books

Amin: 2013

Bostwick: 2014

Cheng: 2012

Dogra: 2012

Eble: 2004

Epstein: 2014

Gordetsky: 2013

Haber: 2010

Humphrey: 2013

Koss: 2012

Lopez-Beltran: 2015

Magi-Galluzzi: 2015

Murphy: 2004

Yang: 2014

Zhou: 2015

Zhou: 2012


Click here for other Bladder / GU Pathology books